The Best Programming Languages
What is the best programming language? Answering this question is… impossible. Each language has its own characteristics that will make it efficient on a type of project. Conversely, some technologies are inefficient or even incompatible with an application. So how to choose? By opting for the most popular languages used by developers. This notoriety means that they are flexible and powerful enough to handle the most common requests and needs.
Here are the popular languages in 2023 in IT:
- Java and C#
- Tensor Flow
- Java for Android
- ObjectiveC and Swift for IOS
- The Xamarin Framework for C#
HTML, The Essential Markup Language
HTML is not strictly speaking a programming language. The acronym stands for HyperText Markup Language, and translates to “markup language”.
Tags represent the structure and architecture of a web page. HTML will therefore define the skeleton and organization of a web page. It is generally manipulated in combination with CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), a computer language that makes it possible to style and format pages. These two languages are enough to create static pages and websites.
Knowledge of HTML is therefore essential in computing. But, used alone, it quickly reaches its limits in terms of functionality and interactivity. It is most often used with other programming languages that will be able to dynamically generate HTML.
Let’s take a concrete example, HTML allows you to create a website with a “login” button. However, for the identification to work and for the user to be redirected to a personalized space, it will be necessary to be able to modify the HTML tags automatically. This is done via a so-called “server” language like PHP.
PHP, ideal for Web Development
PHP is a popular server-side programming language mainly due to ease of learning. It is very popular with beginner web developers. Simple and flexible, the language allows them to discover algorithms, computer logic and object-oriented programming by quickly creating concrete projects!
In the IT market, it is mainly used to design websites and web programs thanks to:
- its possibility of being integrated directly into an HTML file;
- its ability to communicate with servers and databases;
- its versatile features.
- Its popularity is also due to the famous WordPress CMS which is designed in PHP. This content management system allows users who are not familiar with programming to quickly create sites and blogs. They can manipulate visual interfaces to place their elements and texts. The corresponding PHP code is automatically generated by WordPress.
Java and C#, Powerful and Versatile Languages
Java and C# are two so-called “high-level” languages, that is to say that their syntax is easily understandable by humans. Unlike low-level programming languages, which are closer to machine code (binary), they can use natural syntax elements (words and expressions) which make the development process much simpler. The syntax will then be automatically translated into machine code by a component called compiler.
There are many other high-level languages, but Java and C# are among the oldest and are still in high demand, as many applications and sites rely on them. Their common features and benefits are:
- their robustness and safety;
- the automatic memory management system using a garbage collector;
- object-oriented programming;
- Error handling using exceptions.
Python, The Most Popular Language For Several Years
Python is also an old programming language (its first version dates back to 1991), but it has seen its greatest popularity in recent years. It now regularly ranks first among the languages preferred by developers in the Tiobe indexes and StackOverflow studies, two benchmarks in the IT field.
This growing popularity is largely based on the rise of machine learning and artificial intelligence, 2 sectors for which Python is a particularly suitable language. It integrates many libraries (sets of utility, pre-written and reusable functions) as well as frameworks that facilitate and accelerate the design of scientific algorithms.
The language is also widely used in web development and computer programs due to:
- its simplicity and flexibility;
- its rapid prototyping that allows code to run on different platforms and computing environments;
- its object-oriented nature;
- of its large community of programmers.
- Angular, a framework that simplifies the development of complex applications;
- React, a minimalist, lightweight framework optimized to support high traffic sites;
- View that allows to manipulate reactive and reusable components with a simple syntax.
Ruby, Acclaimed By Startups
Ruby has sometimes been seen as underperforming and underperforming Java and C#. However, it remains an excellent choice when you want to train in development thanks to:
- its simplicity and the readability of its code;
- its updates and constant optimization;
- its Ruby on Rails framework and high productivity.
- Ruby is very popular in the startup world. Many sites, which have since become great successes on the web, are designed with Rails. This is particularly the case for GitHub, Kickstarter, Twitter, AirBnB and Shopify.
So, What Programming Language To Learn?
In IT, technologies, trends and especially needs evolve very quickly. To choose the programming language(s) to learn, popularity is therefore not the only criterion to take into account. In order to succeed in your career in digital, you must also determine the language(s) adapted to the profession as well as to your personal preferences. It is on this condition that you will be able to remain competitive and motivated in all your IT projects!
1. Languages for Web Development
PHP is arguably the most widely used language for web development. According to data from W3Techs, it is present on nearly 8 out of 10 websites. If you are aiming for a career in internet programming, it is therefore essential to know the syntax and operation of this scripting language.
However, the popularity and simplicity of the language creates strong competition in the job market. To differentiate yourself, you can complete your course by learning:
Symfony, one of the most flexible and reputable PHP frameworks;
Laravel a development framework that uses its own templating system;
Laminas (formerly Zend): an extensible and secure framework.
2. Scientific Programming for AI and Data Learning
In terms of data science, machine learning or big data, Python is now the essential language. If you are aiming for a job in scientific programming, you should therefore start by learning this language and then the libraries:
- TensorFlow, a platform dedicated to machine learning;
- Pytorch, a Python software library for machine learning;
- Pandas, a data analysis and manipulation tool;
- NumPy to create and modify multidimensional matrices and arrays.
- Other popular languages in the field of scientific programming are Ruby, Julia, R and Matlab.
3. The Best Languages For Mobile Development
In 2020, more than 80% of Internet users used their smartphones or tablets to surf the web and 130 billion mobile applications were downloaded worldwide. Mobile development is therefore a rapidly growing area of IT. To work in this sector, the languages and technologies to know are:
- Java for Android;
- Objective C and Swift for iOS;
- C# and the Xamarin framework;
- Flutter for cross-platform app development.
Programming Languages To Work in Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity is another booming sector in the IT field. Faced with the increase in cyberattacks, almost all companies and administrations are looking to recruit competent profiles, capable of protecting them from cyber threats.
To work in computer security, the preferred technologies and languages are:
- C++, because it makes it easier to detect flaws and vulnerabilities;
- Python which is used in most cybersecurity solutions;
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